Posts filed under ‘Social Media Marketing’

Is your social media presence working for your brand? (Part 2)

Sen. Lindsey Graham: “How much influence did these ads have? …are there tools you can use to evaluate what impact these ads might or might not have had on each of your platforms with respect to the opinions… that Americans were forming…?”

Colin Stretch (Facebook’s General Counsel): “…we do have tools to help advertisers measure their return on investment… to help them understand different campaigns… For campaigns like we saw… they were intended to drive followership of the pages – getting people to like the page. There the return on investment is clear in how many people liked the page.”

Sen. Lindsey Graham: “So would you consider the return on roubles invested, on the money they invested, did it make sense? Were they under or over expectations?”

Colin Stretch: “I can’t say what the expectations were; I do think it’s clear they were able to drive a significant following”

This conversation happened right at the beginning of the Facebook, Google and Twitter testimony to the congressional committee hearing Russia’s election interference in last year’s U.S. presidential election. It demonstrates some of the confusion prevalent in measuring digital and social media activities… What should the campaign intention be? Are we measuring campaigns to manage them, or are we measuring in order to understand a campaigns’ actual impact? How do we define impact, and what tools do we use to measure this impact? What should the expectation of the ROI be from this medium?  Judging from the answers given at the hearing, not many people, even within Facebook, understand how to quantify the ‘impact’ of activities conducted online in an offline environment.

What is the impact?

When Social Media took off in India, the first thing that brands asked was, “What should we do on this medium?” Advice came aplenty.  Now that some of them have been on it for a few years and poured in more than a little money, they’ve started asking, “What is the impact of all my efforts on it?”  The conversations that happen then are not different from the one quoted at the beginning of this post.

There are fundamentally three questions that need to be answered when assessing the impact of any marketing activity:

  • Has the person of my choice – Target Group (TG) – viewed the message?
  • Having viewed the message, does the TG think of my brand differently?
  • Did the TG change behaviour / take an action that benefited (purchase of) my brand?

The muddling up of the objectives

Prior to any mass media activity, businesses and / or marketers are extremely diligent in defining TG, brand attributes, key message take-out, desired action (marketing objective) etc. Once these are clearly defined, the answers to the three questions above are obtained through measurement of the relevant parameters, and the success of the activity is determined.

But, when it comes to digital and social media, critical points such as objective, key message take-out etc. are not clearly defined, which makes measurement of impact difficult and accountability of the digital agency even tougher to enforce. At best, some effort goes into defining and answering the first question – reaching the right TG. Beyond this, thanks to strategies that social media evangelists and agencies propagate, ‘engagement’ becomes an end in itself. After all, isn’t social media all about, “listening in to conversations that customers are having and then participating and connecting with them by initiating and having more meaningful conversations?”

facebook-marketing-objectives

Then there are some more ‘activities’ thrown in as ‘objectives’ and ‘goals’ by the networks themselves – building presence, creating awareness, driving discovery, acquiring customers, customer service/experience etc. With a plethora of such ‘objectives’ floating around, it’s not surprising that businesses and marketers are confused and  sometimes forget that these are the means to the end and not the end itself.

While setting campaign goals, it’s critical to focus on the ultimate objective – to induce a behaviour change in the consumer that leads to cash registers ringing – and tie-in all activities and metrics to it. Without establishing the link, any money you spend online is akin to gambling on little more than faith.

Drowning in data and measurements

Everything that the brand does during a campaign and how the consumer interacts with it is tracked and logged.  Multiply the number of channels in play with the number of ad formats with the number of user actions possible and you get a sense of the amount of data to parse. For example, a brand could use a combination of websites and social networks, to show a mix of rich media, text and video ads using one or more ad servers that require a user to click and reach a brand page and eventually buy something.

Lightbeam Tracking

Then there is the bigger problem of attribution and trying to measuring online-to-offline activity, which is increasingly complicated by the usage and movement of the users between devices, measurement in platform silos, non-linearity of user actions and use of tracking protection etc. For example a user might have viewed a brand video on a mobile app, remembered it and then searched for the brand on his desktop browser wherein the text ad was shown, clicked on it, landed on the website, read about the product and finally made an offline purchase a few weeks later.

With the amount of data captured in the example above, it’s easy to get tangled in answering activity level questions – trying to piece together what happened, where, why / why not etc., and lose sight of the more fundamental questions that we mentioned  towards the beginning of this post. Marketers today have access to more data than ever before, yet there is still a lot of confusion about which data to track and focus on for assessing the impact on the brand.

An approach:

While there isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution to measuring impact, here’s one approach – always think about these three fundamental questions. Start with understanding your online audience first. Then your marketing goals, the outcomes that you want to achieve. Identify data sources you need to help answer those outcome questions – both online and offline. Find ways to integrate these sources to get a more holistic understanding of offline actions basis online views. If real time decisions are needed, use estimates and proxies to tie media metrics to business outcomes. And of course, set up the right tests to validate or reject the hypotheses later.

For example, you might want to answer the question, ‘has the message been viewed by the right TG?’ Then, it would be critical to segment and zero in on the right audience prior to the activity, understand if the media buy reflected that audience, if the ad was served to this right audience and if this audience actually viewed the ad. The extended demographics of the audience, viewability and attention metrics of the ads are a few measures that help you answer this question.

If you are trying to answer, ‘has the TG changed his/her behaviour and purchased a brand in-store,’ determine what the best proxy to measure this is. For example, if the purchase funnel shows that awareness is the biggest driver, then evaluate ‘lift’ in ad recall and brand awareness scores in research studies apart from actual buying itself. If decisions need to be made real time, then use proxies of media metrics (such as mobile ad views, website visits, video completion rate etc.) that tie-in with the business outcome of purchase.

Measures

I’ve often heard digital agencies say that more measuring means limiting creative thinking, that the power of the medium is the agility that it offers, and that one can operate on an iterative and ‘learn as you go mechanism’. With the incredible growth of online advertising, it is high time businesses and marketers had access to a robust methodology to measure how brand perception shifts and sales are driven by activities conducted online.

In the next post, we’ll look at some ways that large firms measure impact and how we can improve them.

  • Ravindra Ramavath
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December 12, 2017 at 12:25 pm Leave a comment

Is your social media presence working for your brand?

social media pic 1

Gone are the days when spends on digital and social media were a miniscule percentage of overall marketing spends and managing them was relegated to young interns who already had a presence on social platforms. While most companies have woken up to the power of the medium, there is also more than a little apprehension as questions abound about utility and returns on this medium.

This post is a summary of learnings from various sources; my experience handling various digital media agencies – overseeing email, search, digital and social media marketing, from observing various types of social media campaigns and their impact, and from studying the latest behavioural research on this topic. Read on…

Don’t buy fans and followers; favour organic growth:

While planning a social media campaign, one of the first suggestions on the table is likely to be a contest with products being handed out for free in order to lure new followers or create a buzz.

The argument for chasing fans and followers during the early days of social media was that the consumers engaged via social media were more likely to buy and recommend the brand. Now, studies have shown that the mere act of endorsing a brand does not affect a consumer’s behaviour or lead to increased purchasing, nor does it spur purchasing by the consumers’ friends.  As marketers experienced this, the argument for chasing fans and followers moved from getting these fans to buy your products to using these followers to spread information on the brand.

But such luring tactics often attract the wrong people who are not strongly attached to the brand. This leads to low engagement with content which defeats the whole purpose of acquiring these fans to spread information. Letting fans and followers grow organically, you are likely to attract those with a positive predisposition towards your brand. And on this foundation, meaningful campaigns can be built going forward.

Have channel specific campaigns and strategy:

For brands, it’s become a norm to be present on multiple social networks. The content is created with focus on one social media network, usually Facebook, and then cross posted (same content across networks) or cross promoted (content modified slightly for other networks). At times, content is cross-linked between social media, e.g., driving people from Twitter to a Facebook campaign. While the reason expressed for this is that the audience on various networks is different and one is maximizing reach, the underlying reason is most often economies.  You save effort, you save time, and ultimately you save money.

Everyone knows that there are big differences between different social networks – predominant content format, posting structure, audience profile and how a user interacts with them. If the differences are so fundamental and so wide, how can one strategy work effectively across?

The big folly is that we put all digital and social as one arm of an integrated media campaign. The result? Marketers and brand managers think of campaigns across digital and social as one campaign rather than thinking about integrated digital campaigns with each network on one arm. It is crucial to pick the right network for a brand rather than jumping on to the next social media bandwagon. Select social networks that fit brand message, type of content, and target audience. Then ensure that the strategy for each channel is in line with the consumer behaviour and interaction that the channel dictates.

Go beyond content marketing, pre-roll ads; collaborate:

Of late, you see a plethora of brands releasing 2-7 minute long videos on YouTube. While most of them in India are released on festive occasions or events, and are about family relationships, it’s not uncommon to see brands talking about issues like self-consciousness, gender stereotypes, sexuality, empowerment etc. Call it storytelling, branded content marketing, brand purpose videos, every agency and marketer wants to create that next “viral video” that wins awards!

The reality is that Consumers often see through these tactics and recognise the intention behind the content that the brands churn out. Very few brands have generated meaningful consumer interest in such “amazingly awesome”, “heart wrenching” videos. Then, in desperation, comes the artificial trending and pre-roll pushing of these videos which are routinely ignored and skipped.  Brands need to go beyond this ‘advertising on digital media’ mentality and take advantage of the many possibilities that digital and social media offer today.

For instance, consider youtube. YouTube has a simple Venn diagram indicating the sweet spot for developing a video content strategy. Since it is tough for a brand to “Create” all the content that fits this sweet spot, they suggest considering the options to “Collaborate” and “Curate”. HBR talks about the rise of crowd culture where today you’ll find a flourishing crowd around almost any topic. Cooking, parenting, health, fashion, films, arts, skin care… you name it and chances are you’ll find entertainers you’ve never heard of, some with  millions of followers. That’s where the leverage of collaboration comes in – content that fits the brand message and target audience can be produced and promoted in partnership with the creator’s channel.

Listen to everything; Measure appropriately:

Social Media Command Center

Geoff Livingston / Flickr – CC BY-SA 2.0

Of late, companies have started creating social “command centers” – rooms with wall-to-wall computer screens and projections, tracking campaigns and brand chatter in real-time across social networks 24×7. These are used to a) create relevant content speedily around a campaign or event, b) receive and respond to consumer feedback and c) identify and mitigate potential PR crises (of late this is becoming the #1 reason for establishing such centers).

While such centres turn big data into beautiful data, more often than not, they fail to deliver on expectations. Those who look at such data closely, berate the inadequacy in data gathering, integration and analysis tools. And those in senior management don’t relate to, and state as meaningless, graphs of retweets, likes, mentions and sentiments. Core to both of these issues, is that the business case (outcome) of social listening is not clearly defined and the investment is justified by activity.

If the primary role of social media is managing consumer feedback, the meaningful measures should be related to traditional consumer feedback mechanisms like call centres (number of calls reduced, speed in resolution etc.). If it is for listening to consumer talk, then measures should be related to traditional research programs (insights generated, product feedback received etc.). These are tricky to measure, but despite the innate difficulties involved, such measurement and attribution is important and possible.

Though social media has been around for more than a decade now, it’s still relatively new and brands are still figuring out a way to navigate and leverage this medium to create impact. In the next post, we’ll delve into an approach to measure the impact and returns on this medium.

    • Ravindra Ramavath

November 20, 2017 at 11:00 am Leave a comment

Zapped by Zappos !

Zappos logo

I first heard of Zappos from a colleague that attended a seminar on Social Media Marketing a few years ago. At that seminar, they were one of the examples mentioned – the ones that got it right, not the other variety of example. Zappos is known for selling premium shoes ; that’s the product category they began with though they’ve now expanded to many others. While that’s the primary product they sell, they figured out early that the benefit to women buying premium shoes is the boost it gives their confidence. So they used Facebook to identify themselves with that benefit, not just with the product they were selling – their Fb page spoke about female confidence and boosting this through corporate dressing, apt make-up for work, etc. and shoes were just a small part of it.

Heard of them again recently from another colleague who’d just moved back to the U.S. This time it was their amazing customer service that impressed both of us; this is a company that actually lives up to the ‘powered by service’ tag-line.

Prior to a hiking holiday, the colleague and her husband had bought hiking shoes on Zappos, but realised on delivery that the shoes didn’t fit. They needed to return two pairs of shoes and the Zappos team erroneously mailed them only one return label. So the couple rang the call centre and explained the problem to the rep – since they were travelling soon they didn’t even have time to select another pair on the site and have them delivered, and hence it had to be a return, not an exchange. As I said earlier, this company actually lives up to their promise of good service, the problem was promptly resolved.

But after that, in contrast to a usual call centre’s robotic “thank you for shopping with us. We hope you choose our services again” dialogue, the friendly Zappos rep asked the couple where they were headed and chatted about the trip, the national parks they were visiting etc. When he found out that they were landing in Vegas before driving to the Grand Canyon, he actually invited them to drop by and visit the Zappos factory which is in Vegas – a gesture that totally wowed them and made them Zappos loyalists for luife.

This article mentions some of the reasons that Zappos reps are so different from typical call centre reps. Some excerpts below :

Most companies who rely on phone centres to do business have time limits – they want their staff to process a certain number of calls per hour. But not Zappos – they field over 5,000 phone calls per day, and there no time limits.

 

As CEO Tony Hsieh (pronounced Shay) says, they actually want to talk to their customers. He believes the telephone is one of the best branding devices out there. The way he looks at it, you have your customer’s undivided attention for 5 or 10 minutes – and what smart marketer doesn’t want that??

He also firmly maintains that every phone call is an opportunity to WOW their customers.

 

If an item is out of stock, Zappos staff will search out three other competitor’s websites and direct customers there. Even though they will lose that sale. But there is a reason they do that: They are not trying to maximize the transaction, they’re trying to build a lifelong relationship. 

For more on Zappos customer service, you can also read this article.

  • Zenobia Driver

With inputs from Roshni Jhaveri and Gunjan Bhatia

June 5, 2013 at 4:18 pm Leave a comment

Updates – on brand bloopers, gold and vitamin water

What more could you ask for in terms of variety, eh ? Well, let’s dive right into our topics.

Brand bloopers

In Feb this year, we’d mentioned how we felt that a Gillette campaign seemed to be milking a tragedy in India while ostensibly trying to express a higher moral position. And in March, this post commented on the Ford Figo ads that caused such outrage at the time. The post pointed out that something posted publicly on the internet can be replicated in a very short amount of time, and once something is out it’s impossible to contain it. Brands are now being built in real time, but they can unravel just as quickly, especially if they respond / communicate inappropriately in times of social or national tragedy.

Frank Eliason, Director Global Social Media at Citi, gives a real-time example of how quickly social media shines the spotlight on any online fumbles that a brand makes. The article includes pics of the ridiculous tweets from Epicurious, an online mag for foodies, after the Boston tragedy.

This post by David Armano – Managing Director of Edelman Digital – has a simple but useful checklist for how to handle branded content online during sensitive times. Even if you didn’t click on the other links given in this post, suggest that you click on this one and read David Armano’s post.

 

Some attitudes towards Gold as an investment

This article in today’s paper reminded me of some posts we’d run late last year; in those, we’d written about the dilemma faced by Mahesh, a friend’s driver who wanted to invest his meagre savings wisely (see posts here and here).

In our earlier posts, we’d written about many commonly held beliefs and attitudes – for instance, like many others, Mahesh believed that gold prices only went up and it was a good hedge against inflation. Within the options in gold, he’d rather invest in gold jewellery than gold coins; in his words, “I will buy gold coins once I’ve bought enough jewelry; kuchh pehenne ke liye bhi hona chahiye naa (there should be something to wear too)”.

Other interesting facets of these beliefs relate to gold and loans. A lot of Mahesh’ friends and neighbours were against buying gold jewellery on EMI schemes and would much rather buy whatever they could afford to with their annual savings; after all, “Yeh tho udhaar hua, aur Lakshmi ko udhaar ke paison ke sahaare ghar kaise laa sakte hain (this is like a loan, and how can we bring Lakshmi – the Goddess of wealth – home on borrowed money)”.

And since this gold jewellery is associated with Lakshmi, the Goddess of wealth, and it is a symbol of the household’s prosperity and status, pawning it is absolutely the last option; though firms such as Mannapuram Gold Loans, Muthoot etc. have gone some distance towards removing that stigma and making the transaction reliable and transparent.

Vitamin water – Danone B’lue’s National launch

In Dec 2011, we’d blogged about seeing Danone B’lue banners all over Pune. This month, we noticed in news articles that B’lue has now been launched nationally. With the launch, this beverage opens a new segment in the Indian Ready to drink beverage segment. Tarun Arora, Country Head, Danone-Narang Beverages said that B’lue was launched as a pilot in Pune followed by a soft launch in Mumbai, and that the beverage was very well accepted in the market.

Will be interesting to watch how the brand fares, and whether the vitamin water market becomes a viable niche in the Indian beverages market.

Compiled by,

Zenobia Driver

April 18, 2013 at 9:23 am 2 comments

Crowdsourcing

The dictionary definition of Crowdsourcing: the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.

Its advantages are numerous – access to a larger talent pool, lower cost barriers, new, innovative, out-of-the box ideas and content generation, consumer engagement opportunity and the chance to really understand what the consumer wants. Of course this has been facilitated by technological advances and the Internet.

Crowdsourcing is a recent phenomenon in India. Here are a few examples of successful crowdsourcing initiatives:

LAYS – Frito Lays ran a campaign called “Give Us You Dillicious Flavorduring the past year, asking consumers to suggest flavors for their potato wafers. They ran a nationwide contest and gathered over 1.35 million entries! Four flavors were shortlisted, then piloted across India for two months; this was when a promotion with the theme “Bachega Sirf Tastiest” (Survival of the tastiest) was run to seek consumer votes to decide which flavor continues to stay in the market (and who takes home the Rs.50 lakh prize and 1% sales revenue). The second phase of the campaign garnered over 4 million votes.

Traditional media, including TV, was used for supporting and driving consumers to the digital platform. Lays used Web 2.0 applications like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter extensively for its campaigns.

MAGGI – From a lonesome hostel-living student’s sustenance to a child’s evening snack to a trekkers reprieve from hunger, Nestle’s Maggi Noodles has, over time, been a part of everyone’s life. Maggi asked its loyalists to send in their favorite Maggi stories and their favorite Maggi recipes.

The latest Maggi ads are a series of short stories, showcasing consumers’ memories of Maggi. For instance, friends remember splitting Maggi after measuring it with a ruler; scouts members remember eating Maggi at a camp; while another person remembers serving Maggi when people were stuck in the Mumbai floods (Click here to view montage). The ad concludes with consumers being invited to share their own Maggi story, through which they can get a chance to feature on the Maggi packs or ads. The campaign generated over 30,000 stories, some of which were used to generate further ads based on these stories.

Maggi has launched 3 flavors basis the campaign – Trilling Curry, Tricky Tomato and Romantic Capsica.

BINGO – Another example of this is the ITC Bingo Mad Angles online campaign to create print and TV ads for it through an application. Users created 309 print ads and 69 video ads in just a month.

Active engagement is what crowdsourcing is all about. It enables companies to turn brand enthusiasts to loyalists and eventually advocates. It puts the customers first, makes them king and serves them what they really want, how they want it, as they want it. A win-win situation for both.

By,

Roshni Jhaveri

August 3, 2011 at 5:49 am Leave a comment

Who is using the Internet & Social Media?

Internet user & usage

  • Age – 19-40 years age group constitutes nearly 85% of Internet users

        In India, ~50% users of Facebook are between ages 18-25 years; another 25% are between ages 26-35 years

  • Gender/ Working status – 85% of Internet users are male, 11% are working women, 6% non-working women and 2% are housewives

        Out of a total 25 million Facebook users in India, 16 million are male

  • City tiers – Top ten cities (Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai, Pune, Hyderabad, Surat and Nagpur) have only 37% of the total numbers of Internet users in India. 36% of all internet users can be found in small towns (like Udaipur, Belgaum, Mangalore, Nellore, Kozhikode, etc.) with a population of less than half a million.

        Out of the total 25 million Facebook users in India, 16 million users on Facebook are located in the top 10 cities using internet

  • Place of access – 40 million people in India access the Internet from work (confess now – you’re reading this blog while at office, aren’t you ? ), and 30 million from cafes, apart from 11 million households that have a broadband connection installed

        The percentage of people accessing the internet from office might explain why time spent on a site / blog / page is typically low, and the necessity for communication on the net to be in bite-sized chunks of information (we know this and yet we natter on and on in our posts! Put it down to self-indulgence.)

  • Usage – 97% are regular users (i.e. 2-3 times/ week), of these 79% of internet users use it daily 
  • Purpose of usage – 94% of internet users use the internet for email purposes, 73% use to download music followed by 56% for chatting. Other major purposes for using Internet are job searching (56%), social networking sites (54%) and finding information on search engines (52%)

 (Sources:  IGF, IMRB-IAMAI internet study, iCube report, Facebook) 

By,

Roshni Jhaveri

April 12, 2011 at 4:42 am 1 comment

Internet & Social Media are BIG, but how big is BIG?

Here are some statistics about the growing use of internet in India. (Source IGF, IMRB-IAMAI internet study, iCube report, Google stats)

  1. 102 million unique internet users in India. This implies 8.8% penetration rate.
    • Of the 102 million, 84 million are desktop internet users, 40 million are mobile internet users  and 22 million are ‘dual’ users – i.e. use both desktop and mobile interne
    • According to industry experts, this number is expected to rise to 250-300 million by 2015. These consumers are far more likely to be meeting their digital needs through mobile phones than through personal computers.
  2. There has also been a rise in the time spent on internet as the number of hours spent has gone up from 9.3 hrs/week to 15.7 hrs/week between 2008 and 2009; a 70% increase.
    • This can be attributed to innovative content delivery, improved applications, downloading music or videos, socializing through social networking sites and micro-blogging

To put this in perspective, let’s compare this to other, more mainstream communication channels:

  1. 103 million cable & satellite TV users in India (This does not include Doordarshan which is another 34 million users)
  2. Average time spent viewing TV is 16 hours/ week
  3. Daily circulation of the top 25 national and regional newspapers in India ranges from 0.6 million to 4.2 million each.

Those were the facts about the medium – clearly Internet in India is no longer a channel that can be ignored by a business. Now let’s take a look at the vehicles: (Growth rates basis unique users in March’10 vs. March’11, Source: adplanner.google.com)

  1. Web portals like Yahoo!, Rediff, Indiatimes grew at ~35%
  2. Social networking websites like Facebook grew at a whopping 175%, YouTube grew at 60%, LinkedIn grew at 45%, while Twitter growth was slower in India at 20%. Orkut’s popularity has faded to 20%.Twitter, Facebook, Yahoo, Google, Blogs, Youtube, etc.
  3. Blogs are not as popular anymore – Blogger didn’t show any growth in the past year and WordPress grew at 10%. That said, blogs are used as a source for information dissemination and not for entertainment or socializing. Therefore, they may still be useful for certain objectives and audience profiles.

The following table gives a snapshot of the viewership and usage of top 12 websites in India

Comparing websites

Not only do the social media sites have an increasing reach but they are also retaining visitors for a longer time.

Need we say more…

By,

Roshni Jhaveri

April 5, 2011 at 12:25 pm 8 comments

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